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Alexis de Tocqueville

Alexis-Charles-Henri Clérel de Tocqueville (French: [alɛksi ʃ& aʁl ɑ̃ʁI kleʁɛDeadly deə tɔkvil]; 29 July 1805 – 16 April 1859) was a French political philosopher and historian famous for his functions Democracy in America (emerging in 2 amounts: 1835 and 1840) and The Old Regime and the Revolution (1856). In either of them, he analyzed the improved living standards and social conditions of people, as well as their connection to the current market and nation in Western societies. Democracy in America was published after Tocqueville's travels in the United States, and is now considered an early work of sociology and political science.

Tocqueville had been first active in French politics, initially beneath the July Monarchy (1830–48) after which through the Second Republic (1849–51) which succeeded that the February 1848 Revolution. He retired from political life after Louis Napoléon Bonaparte's two December 1851 coup, and afterwards started work on The Old Regime and the Revolution.

He argued that the significance of the French Revolution was supposed to continue the process of modernizing and centralizing the French country which had started under King Louis XIV. The failure of the Revolution came from the inexperience of those deputies who were overly wedded to abstract Enlightenment ideals. Tocqueville was a classical liberal that advocated parliamentary government, but was skeptical about those extremes of democracy.
Bio from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Photo via Wikimedia Commons], from Théodore Chassériau [Public domain.

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